Declaring An Empty Array In Java

Once an array has been initialized the elements can have values assigned to them by using the array's index. Creating an Array You create an array explicitly using Java's new operator. java import java. In C, Java you declare a variable by writing its TYPE followed by its name and assigning it a value. Static methods for manipulating arrays are available in the java. Anywho, how do you make an empty array in python? Everything Ive searched up only tells. In a two-dimensional Java array, we can use the code a[i] to refer to the ith row (which is a one-dimensional array). We will look String array in this JSP. Java array inherits the Object class, and implements the Serializable as well as Cloneable interfaces. This is very useful for storing more complex information. We create an empty ArrayList of Strings. Including the full limits (as you have in both your array examples) is good, since it means the reader isn't worrying about whether you start your indices at 0 or 1. Arrays are initialized with the default value of their type (null for String). Also, you have to ensure that. An array is a collection of similar data types. They can have properties but these need to be abstract or to provide accessor implementations. Java allows to use array literals like primitive and string literals. The methods described below are only applicable to one dimensional arrays. declare array without specified size This is the simple coding that let us enter a sentence in a 100 element size of array variable. equals(a, b), it is also the case that Arrays. A map is a type that associates values to keys. (Note that when a default value is specified for a record field whose type is a union, the type of the default value must match the first element of the union. JDK provides searching and sorting utilities in the Arrays class (in package java. but unfortunately, ArrayList doesn't support such kind of declaration in Java. Java permits arrays to be declared with C-style syntax:. In Java Two Dimensional Array, data is stored in row and columns and we can access the record using both the row index and column index (like an Excel File). Arrays in Java are dynamically created objects and a Java array variable holds a reference to an array object in memory. For primitive types, use C arrays. It returns the modified array. Jan 18, 2016 · Creating an empty array means that all slots are empty, BUT you have at least to provide the number of slots. In the method below, I am assigning values to an Output array. An array itself is actually an object. The code must create the array explicitly and assign it to anArray. What makes them different from abstract classes is that interfaces cannot store state. If you intialize the array as eric proposed, you need to. Although arrayList1 is actually an ArrayList, the compiler will see it as an object of type Collection. The simplest is when all you need is only an empty array. Arrays; Stack Exchange Network Stack Exchange network consists of 175 Q&A communities including Stack Overflow , the largest, most trusted online community for developers to learn, share their knowledge, and build their careers. Enter the size of array and then enter all the elements of that array. NullPointerException when you try to apply some method to one of the elements of the array. The general syntax for declaring and constructing an array is as follows: [] = new []; You can use any type as the element type, although the left and right sides of this. How to declare and initialize array in a class? I'm having a problem with a program I'm writing for the mbed. Following example demonstrates this. It's also a String, with a capital S, meaning it's an object. Uninitialized arrays must have the dimensions of their rows, columns, etc. The char array size is same as the length of the string. Processing an array of objects is much similar to the processing of an array of primitive type. Use the protocol buffer compiler. An array is a type of variable that can hold multiple values of similar data type. StackMethods. In this case, the calling code need not change—iterating over the elements works correctly even if the returned array is empty, so the calling code need not check the return value for NULL. The old way of creating arrays to involve the Array() constructor. When we invoke length of an array, it returns the number of rows in the array or the value of the leftmost dimension. In JavaScript, objects are also associative arrays (or hashes). Creating an empty array means that all slots are empty, BUT you have at least to provide the number of slots. You declare a dynamic array once, but it can be sized and resized many times (with the ReDim statement) while the application is running. In C++, when you declare an array, storage for the array is allocated. In order to combine (concatenate) two arrays, we find its length stored in aLen and bLen respectively. Unlike other languages, however, arrays in Java are true, first-class objects. First, you must declare a variable of the desired array type. If list size is 0, list is empty. The number of elements in an array is determined by its declaration. Groovy supports arrays just like in Java. isEmpty () method of java. The above for/in loops solves the common case of iterating over every element in a list, but the while loop gives you total control over the index numbers. using it in more that one thread may cause problems. Learn how to shift the array elements in a circular way. Vector) instead of a native array. For example, the declaration. You can enter a value in the box labelled 'Person ID', which is the first number of a two-dimensional array, and then select one of two numbers in the Name/Profession box. How to initialize an Array in Java. Unlike for loops, array comprehensions are expressions, and can be returned and assigned. – Arnaud Jan 18 '16 at 16:23 When declaring an array, it's best practice to place the brackets directly after the type, i. DECLARE @list varchar(23) = '1,2,3,4' SELECT FROM tbl WHERE col IN (@list) The answer is that it does work: just look at this: CREATE TABLE #test (id int NOT NULL, col varchar(23) NOT NULL) INSERT #test(id, col) VALUES(1, 'Something'), (2, '1,2,3,4'), (3, 'Anything') DECLARE @list varchar(23) = '1,2,3,4' SELECT id FROM #test WHERE col IN (@list). On the other hand, it requires the user to manually set all the values in the array, and should be used with caution. The maximum admissible amount of dimensions in an array is four. When we invoke length of an array, it returns the number of rows in the array or the value of the leftmost dimension. util package. When declaring parameters to functions, declaring an array variable without a size is equivalent to declaring a pointer. As indicated in some of the previous examples, Java arrays are allocated like any other object. Here is an example that demonstrates how to do this. The char array size is same as the length of the string. Uninitialized arrays must have the dimensions of their rows, columns, etc. In this beginners video tutorial you will learn about the different ways of initializing arrays in java programming language with example. int scores[] = new int[25]; Declare an array named a of ten elements of type int and initialize the elements (starting with the first) to the values 10 , 20 , , 100 respectively. Vector) instead of a native array. A basic fundamental on the usage of arrays is search an element in java array. Anywho, how do you make an empty array in python? Everything Ive searched up only tells. Concept of Array in Java. Stack's are a subclass of java. An interface is defined using the keyword interface. How to Find Array Size in Java. To declare a method that returns an array, on the left of the method's name, provide the type of value that the returned array will be made of, followed by empty square brackets. Java allows a statement format for combined declaration, construction, and initialization of arrays with literal values, as shown in the following code examples (note that the String array defined in lines 2, 3, and 4 is two dimensional):. Unlike for loops, array comprehensions are expressions, and can be returned and assigned. There are a number of ways to declare an array in Java. of() static factory methods to create immutable lists. Note that it's not possible to initialize an array after the declaration using this. Each element, therefore, must be accessed by a corresponding number of index values. Two Dimensional String Array in Java. Declaring and Intializing Arrays in C++: Arrays of Objects and Primitives Declaring an array in C++ is very straightforward; you just give the array a name and specify how many items it should contain in square brackets after the name. Size of such array can only be changed, if it will be assigned to a new array, one problem here can be that you may lose pre-stored array data. ECMAScript differs from the Java programming language in the behaviour of Unicode escape sequences. Two-Dimensional Arrays • Arrays that we have consider up to now are one-dimensional arrays, a single line of elements. Elements are not allowed to be inserted or removed. You can also define a method whose input is a range of the array like below: Input: range of an int array Output: randomly shuffled array. You can use Arrays. Java Shift Array Elements - Online Java Tutorial will explain How to shift array elements in Java Programming. An array is an instance of a special Java array class and has a corresponding type in the type system. If list size is 0, list is empty. sort() and Arrays. The following illustrates the typical syntax. An array of objects stores only the references to the objects. Dense Array: Dense array is nothing different in functionality from a normal array. Note that it's not possible to initialize an array after the declaration using this. hashCode(b). Java arrays are, in fact, variables that allow you to store more than one values of the same data type and call any of them whenever you need. Below is just an example to initialize a byte array. Java; Collections Data Structure; Array; Initializing a Two Dimensional Array. As indicated in some of the previous examples, Java arrays are allocated like any other object. Just as you can declare an empty, or uninitialized, float or int array, you can create an empty char array with C programing. Refer Default array values in Java. If we create the clone of a single-dimensional array, it creates the deep copy of the Java array. Each ArrayList object has instance variable capacity which indicates the size of the ArrayList. In the cases of the single dimension array declaration and the two dimensional array declarations, all declare arrays with components that are null. , for an int data type the value can only be a whole number between -2,147,483,648 to 2,147,483,647). Declaration syntax. There are actually two different syntaxes for array literals. The name args is just a name for this array. THE unique Spring Security education if you're working with Java today. Passing an array as parameter to a method Previously discussed: parameter passing in Java Parameter passing mechanism = agreement between the calling method and the called method on how a parameter is passed between them. * This method is particularly useful when we are dealing with very small size array. The Java ArrayList can be initialized in number of ways depending on the requirement. Another way to check if arraylist contains any element or not, we can check the size of arraylist. 4}; The array length (size) will be automatically set to the minimum that will hold the given values. They are the most voted questions from stackoverflow. How to free an array that was allocated on the heap. Anywho, how do you make an empty array in python? Everything Ive searched up only tells. Let's look at them before we look at a java program to convert string to char array. If you put more elements in the declaration than you use to initialize, empty spaces are added to the end of the array and you can add things later: dogs myArray[42] = {spot, pluto, clifford, ruff}; In this statement, the array is big enough to hold 42 dogs, but you only put in 4 to begin with, so you have 38 more dogs you could add later. Design a Class for Dynamic Arrays In Java, the size of an array is fixed when it is created. Java arrays are case-sensitive and zero-based (the first index is not 1 but 0). ArrayList in Java is used to store dynamically sized collection of elements. If we create the clone of a single-dimensional array, it creates the deep copy of the Java array. util package. Java provides for-each loop to iterate through Java array elements. Improve this sample solution and post your code through Disqus. A string in Java is a string of values (text and/or numbers). The advantage of this project type over several Java SE projects (each containing one module) is that dependencies are simply managed by declaring appropriate exports and requires in module-info. It will need to be assigned a String object before it can be used. Declaring an array Arrays in Java declare as follows: int[] myArray; Here the variable myArray is the name of the array, which is of type (int []) ie We declare an array of integers. This function is useful for creating empty arrays of data types that do not have a special syntax for creating empty arrays, such as [] for double arrays. Table of Contents Create Array Iterate Through Array Clone Array Merge Arrays Like JavaScript, TypeScript has an array type to allow assignment of multiple values. Instructions on searching through a java array. Java provides for-each loop to iterate through Java array elements. ArrayList is a part of collection framework and is present in java. removeAll() method. How to check if ArrayList is empty in Java? There are a couple of ways to check if ArrayList is empty as given below. Not being able to use all of the above styles would seem to me to be an inconsistent grammar in Java. As you've seen, you can declare an array and immediately provide its elements using the C-style squiggly bracket syntax. We constantly publish useful tricks, tutorials on Java, J2EE or web development. The array elements store the location of reference variables of the object. This loop can be used very well with iteration over arrays and other such collections. In Java, you can initialize arrays during declaration or you can initialize (or change values) later in the program as per your requirement. Also understand Pass by reference and Multidimensional arrays. Anywho, how do you make an empty array in python? Everything Ive searched up only tells. arrayCopy() to copy both those array into the third array. Write the statements needed to determine whether any of the the array elements are null or refer to the empty String. using it in more that one thread may cause problems. 2 has taught me a lot about JavaScript. An array is an instance of a special Java array class and has a corresponding type in the type system. In the image above array position 0 is holding a value of 10, array position 1 is holding a value of 14, position 2 has a value of 36, and so on. Array is used to store similar type of data in series. Suppose you have 4 elements 10,20,30,40 then sum is 100. How to check if ArrayList is empty in Java? There are a couple of ways to check if ArrayList is empty as given below. java import java. (The value 1 goes into the first element, the value 100 to the last. In this post, we will see how to declare and initialize two dimensional arrays in Java. Arrays; public class Queue { private int front; Stack Exchange Network Stack Exchange network consists of 175 Q&A communities including Stack Overflow , the largest, most trusted online community for developers to learn, share their knowledge, and build their careers. A map is a type that associates values to keys. But don't worry, there is a workaround to declare an ArrayList with values e. Arrays are allocated in the heap with the "new" operator and accessed through pointers (just like objects). * Java String array can be created in below given ways. (double[ ] means: a reference (location/address) of an array of double) The variable x is of the type double[ ] which means it contains the reference (location/address) of a double typed array. Java allows a statement format for combined declaration, construction, and initialization of arrays with literal values, as shown in the following code examples (note that the String array defined in lines 2, 3, and 4 is two dimensional):. So we are telling Java to set up an array with 6 positions in it. append(valueToBeInserted) There doesn't seem to be a. (Note that when a default value is specified for a record field whose type is a union, the type of the default value must match the first element of the union. It returns the modified array. Of course this is an assignment, not a declaration. In the above program, we've two integer arrays array1 and array2. Arrays and java. You must be precise, however: The array's size must be 1 greater than the maximum length of the string to account for that NULL character. Sorting Arrays [C#] This example shows how to sort arrays in C#. (The value 1 goes into the first element, the value 100 to the last. The size of an array must be specified by a constant, and may be left blank if the array is initialized from a list. If you only supply one argument to the Array constructor, the argument initializes the length of the new array; the new array’s elements are not initialized. Associative arrays. 4}; The array length (size) will be automatically set to the minimum that will hold the given values. Java Download » What is Java? » Do I have Java? » Need Help? » Uninstall About Java. Set the variable hasEmpty to true if any elements are null or empty– otherwise set it to false. If you change number of element in array, length function not get effect. 0, you can create arrays with up to 60 dimensions. Java 'int' array examples (declaring, initializing, populating) | alvinalexander. An array name used without brackets is a pointer to the first element. Arrays of any data types are allowed. There are actually two different syntaxes for array literals. However, it is possible to implement a dynamic array by allocating a new array and copying the contents from the old array to the new one. This method returns an array of objects which we are trying to accomplish. One approach is to use java. Oracle Database predefines several collection types in supplied packages such as DBMS_SQL and DBMS_UTILITY. Initialize byte array in Java and converting byte array to String Just like any other Array, Byte array also have the same syntax. It provides us dynamic arrays in Java. XAMPP is a free and open source cross-platform web server package, consisting mainly of the Apache HTTP Server, MySQL database, and interpreters for scripts written in the PHP and Perl programming languages. • Examples: • Lab book of multiple readings over several days • Periodic table. This Java array tutorial explains how to work with Java arrays. empty, unlike zeros, does not set the array values to zero, and may therefore be marginally faster. To insert element in an array in Java Programming, you have to ask to the user to enter the array size, array elements and ask to the user to enter the element and position where he or she want to insert the element to insert that element at desired position. Because we've set up an integer array, the default values for all 6 positions will be zero ( 0 ). e in Crystal Reports. In this example we are going to use this method: int[] copyOfRange(int[] original, int from, int to). In C, Java you declare a variable by writing its TYPE followed by its name and assigning it a value. Array element is a part of an array; it is an indexed variable having the same name and some value. How to declare and initialize array in a class? I'm having a problem with a program I'm writing for the mbed. The Java ArrayList can be initialized in number of ways depending on the requirement. For example, you may use the variable row to refer to a single row number and the variable rows to refer to many rows (such as an array of rows - to be discussed later). Converting string into Array can be done by split() method of java and StringTokenizer() method of StringTokenizer class. If we look inside the isEmpty() method, it also check the size of arraylist to determine if the list is empty or not. StackMethods. When you declare a dynamic array, you specify the data type of its future elements but include an empty bounds list, so LotusScript doesn't allocate space in memory for those elements. Return an empty array or collection instead of a null value for methods that return an array or collection Some APIs intentionally return a null reference to indicate that instances are unavailable. empty(m,0) to create an m-by-0 array of the ClassName class. Arrays class defines multiple overloaded copyOfRange methods. Let's see this with the help of example. Using new operator. Also, you have to ensure that. You can iterate over all elements of a Java array, or access each element individually via its array index. 1 LOOP and prompt for user input to initialize array 3. Search an element in java array example source code. An easy way to initialize a set without manually adding each element : HashSet « Collections « Java Tutorial. In the Java programming language, a multidimensional array is an array whose components are themselves arrays. This array is never null, even if the underlying Collection is empty. I think it's because each Element of the array holds a GameObject/Texture2D, so I need to check if both those slots are null, but I'm not an advanced programmer. Java Arrays Syntax. Before they are used, all variables have to be declared. In a Java program, if the Unicode escape sequence \u000A , for example, occurs within a single-line comment, it is interpreted as a line terminator (Unicode character 000A is line feed) and therefore the next character is not part of the comment. In the above program, we've two integer arrays array1 and array2. 1 LOOP and prompt for user input to initialize array 3. When a programmer tries to access an item in an array cell whose index is greater than or equal to the array's logical size, this item is garbage (not currently part of the useful data in the program). Learn how to shift the array elements in a circular way. Though, it may be slower than standard arrays but can be helpful in programs where lots of manipulation in the array is needed. Stacks are quite easy to use. – Arnaud Jan 18 '16 at 16:23 When declaring an array, it's best practice to place the brackets directly after the type, i. Java Arrays and Loops. We can replace a StringBuilder with a char array in some programs. Table of Contents Create Array Iterate Through Array Clone Array Merge Arrays Like JavaScript, TypeScript has an array type to allow assignment of multiple values. the only thing to be kept in mind is the possibility of NullPointerException being thrown during run time and also remembering that the array elements themselves are reference types, which brings subtle differences from the case when they are passed as parameters. Syntax for declaring external variable: extern int var; A global variable, that is a variable declared outside of all functions in a file, is accessible by any code in that file. The fill() method fills (modifies) all the elements of an array from a start index (default zero) to an end index (default array length) with a static value. The Java Deque interface is a subtype of the Java Queue interface. Let’s look at them before we look at a java program to convert string to char array. DONOTEDITTHISFILE!!!!! !!!!!$$$$$ !!!!!///// !!!"!&!&!+!+!S!T![!^!`!k!p!y! !!!"""'" !!!&& !!!'/'notfoundin"%s" !!!) !!!5" !!!9" !!!EOFinsymboltable !!!NOTICE. ArrayList in Java is used to store dynamically sized collection of elements. Using new operator. Initialize byte array in Java and converting byte array to String Just like any other Array, Byte array also have the same syntax. Deque, represents a double ended queue, meaning a queue where you can add and remove elements from both ends of the queue. How to initialize an Array in Java. length array_name is name of array length is used to fined size/index value of the array. To answer this question, in Java 5 was introduced the "For-each" loop. We loop through the array comparing whether the current smallest number is bigger than the array value. " from: Java Language Specification, Gosling, Joy, and Steel, 1996. We can access Array elements by its numeric index. Two Dimensional String Array in Java. Here's a sample application that uses a stack to reverse a list of numbers. You can also declare an array of arrays (also known as a multidimensional array) by using two or more sets of brackets, such as String[][] names. If you call the constructor with two or more arguments, the arguments initialize the array elements. Java Array Declaration. Java class ArrayList(java. Similar in kind to the restrictions placed upon the stack implementation, the queue only allows mutation via two methods. For example, given a=1 and b=10, the method returns a shuffled array such as {2 5 6 7 9 8 3 1 10 4}. By declaring extern variables, for programs that require multiple files, variables declared in one file can be accessible in other files. But wait … What if you want to empty an array instead of creating one? Hmm… perhaps not as straightforward. This tutorial explains how to declare, initialize and use arrays in Java? Java supports empty arrays too. Java defines special syntax that allows us to specify array values literally in our programs. How do I declare and initialize an array in Java? Won't the first one lead to a null/empty array, are various ways in which you can declare an array in Java:. Unlike C/C++, in Java every array object knows its own length using its length field, therefore while passing array's object reference into a method, we do not need to pass the array length as an additional argument. The number of elements in an array is determined by its declaration. In this test, using a char array is about twice as fast as a StringBuilder. Questions: I'm trying to add items to an array in python. Newly created data type is used to create an Object of that Class Type. Let's see this with the help of example. java import java. Therefore, the statement return(x) will return the the reference (location/address) of a double typed array. The array is searched backwards, starting at fromIndex. declares an array with an element of type char for each second in a century. Set the variable hasEmpty to true if any elements are null or empty– otherwise set it to false. Yeah, in actuality it could be achievable to maintain the techniques purely such as you have it, interior the array and characteristic your TableModel fetch the techniques for the JTable. The indexOf() and lastIndexOf() functions are very useful for searching an array for a particular value, if necessary. Arrays; public class Queue { private int front; Stack Exchange Network Stack Exchange network consists of 175 Q&A communities including Stack Overflow , the largest, most trusted online community for developers to learn, share their knowledge, and build their careers. * Java String array can be created in below given ways. As you've seen, you can declare an array and immediately provide its elements using the C-style squiggly bracket syntax. Dynamic arrays are declared as part of the type: array< type > The inner type of a dynamic array can be a class limiter or the name of any other non-array type, including delegate types. Now that it has been declared, numberOfDays can only ever hold values that match the definition of the data type (i. An array is used to store a collection of data, but it is often more useful to think of an array as a collection of variables of the same type. That's not to say that there is no memory associated with an empty array—there is memory needed to hold those references (the empty "slots" in the array). These exercises are for academic purpose and for you to gain some understandings and practices on these algorithms. ArrayList class is used for checking whether the list is empty or not. To answer this question, in Java 5 was introduced the "For-each" loop. If list size is 0, list is empty. 4 illustrates the names array of the previous example. Unlike for loops, array comprehensions are expressions, and can be returned and assigned. Check if a Java Array Contains a Value. This tutorial will teach you how to declare or create JavaScript strings. Besides, Java arrays can only contain elements of the same data type. When you declare a dynamic array, you specify the data type of its future elements but include an empty bounds list, so LotusScript doesn't allocate space in memory for those elements. On the other hand, it requires the user to manually set all the values in the array, and should be used with caution. In our previous article we discussed about Two Dimensional Array which is the simplest form of Java Multi Dimensional Array. In the method below, I am assigning values to an Output array. This would just fill the matrix with zeroes. Arrays are used to store multiple values in a single variable, instead of declaring separate variables for each value. declare on heap. To overcome this situation, array came alive. The first element in the array is [0], the second element is [1], and so on. Here's the code: var arrayName = []; If you know the expected length of the array you're creating, you can. For example, the following Java code declares an array of integers of length 3 and initializes the array all in one line: int aNums[] = { 2, 4, 6 };. Shortcut Syntax. The word Deque is pronounced like a "deck" of cards. Search an element in java array example source code. 1) Declare a Java int array with initial size; populate it later. An interface is defined using the keyword interface. Java Download » What is Java? » Do I have Java? » Need Help? » Uninstall About Java. I usually spend some time searching the net, without luck, and always end up opening an old script, and get the code from there!. Java Initialize Array Examples. This tutorial explains how to declare, initialize and use arrays in Java? Java supports empty arrays too. In this example we are going to use this method: int[] copyOfRange(int[] original, int from, int to). It raises its size according to new elements and decreases the size when the elements are removed. A fixed number of elements that array may contain. Declaring (and initializing) Arrays: We declare and initialize array variables like other class variables, but by specifying the type and constructor in a special form: for 1-dimensional (1-d) arrays, the type is specified as any Java type (primitive or reference) followed by []; the constructor uses that same type, with an int value (computed by a literal or more general expression) inside. Because Java lacked a regex package for so long, there are also many 3rd party regex packages available for Java. Last modified To reuse the array in each benchmark, we'll declare an inner class to hold the array and the count so we can. To declare a variable is to create the variable. for array: var myJSONObject = {" Creation of an empty Object:. That means that we want to create an int array, and not a single variable. Anywho, how do you make an empty array in python? Everything Ive searched up only tells. Declare a dynamic array. Declare first and initialize later:. To declare an array, define the variable type with square brackets:. Sorting Arrays [C#] This example shows how to sort arrays in C#. Is there anyway that let us. Hierarchy of ArrayList class. Of course, that means I've made a lot of mistakes but that seems to be the best way for me to learn. If you wanted your hallways to have 10 rooms, each with CD racks like the ones in the above example, you could declare your array as follows: Dim cdRackHallway(0 to 9, 0 to 1, 0 to 3) As String In Visual Basic 6. Thus leaving none to be used as the initial value. 0, you can create arrays with up to 60 dimensions. Re: Declare Array that initially is empty?? It really depends on the testing situation so the bounds may not be the same every time the application is run. The declaration of the array happens in the. Java Forums on Bytes. This Java array tutorial explains how to work with Java arrays. Array is a special kind of collection in Scala. Design a Class for Dynamic Arrays In Java, the size of an array is fixed when it is created. sort() and Arrays. The act of declaring a. Return an empty array or collection instead of a null value for methods that return an array or collection Some APIs intentionally return a null reference to indicate that instances are unavailable. In this example, we use a String array to initialize an ArrayList. Array is a data structure used for storing collection of variables of the same type. 1) Check if ArrayList is empty using size method. - Arnaud Jan 18 '16 at 16:23 When declaring an array, it's best practice to place the brackets directly after the type, i. Char array, StringBuilder speed. Write a statement to declare and initialize an array named denominations that contains exactly six elements of type of int. We will show you how to declare strings by using the JavaScript string constructor ('new String'), and by assigning direct values (single- or double-quoted strings), and implicitely, using string returned values from different methods.